Publication Ethics

Journal of Research and Technology (JRT) is an academic journal published by faculty of engineering, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo; one of the priorities of the editorial team is to publish quality papers. The integrity of the content published is an essential point and should be ensured during the review and the edition processes and when publishing papers. Therefore, all the performers of an JRT publication, authors, reviewers, members of the editorial team and of JRT consortium, are expected to fully adhere to our policy regarding publication ethics and malpractice, and respect the following statements:



JRT-papers must be original and adhere to a high scientific (content) and technical (language, artwork, etc.) standard.


JRT is a free open access journal licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Authors who publish with this journal accept the following conditions:

  • Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of its authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  • Authors are free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in JRT (CC BY 4.0).
  • Authors should not post their submitted work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on personal websites) prior to or during the submission process, as this may cause nomenclatural problems.


To ensure that papers are original contributions, and to avoid copyright issues, authors must follow some rules:

  • When a paper is submitted in JRT, the title page should include the disclaimer “The present paper has not been submitted to another journal, nor will it be in the 6 months after initial submission to JRT. All co-authors are aware of the present submission.”
  • All co-authors must be aware of and agree to the contents of the submission.
  • All co-authors agree with the copyright policy and the Open Access policy of the journal.
  • The corresponding author declares that the manuscript and the illustrations within are original, or that he/she has taken all the necessary steps to avoid breach of copyright.

-Peer review-

JRT applies single-blind peer review. Authors can draw our attention to potential conflicts of interest by indicating the name of “opposed reviewers” during submission. Authors are required to explain (in detail) why they do not want this person to be invited. However, JRT editors should decide for themselves who they want to invite, and cannot guarantee that “opposed reviewers” will not be invited.

To help ensure that publishing scientists also act as reviewers, JRT considers it a gentlemen’s agreement that its authors, whose papers were accepted, also act as potential reviewers for other manuscripts submitted to the journal.

-Plagiarism, text recycling and smallest publishable units-

Authors are expected to contribute to their research field by publishing original and relevant results and data. The following elements are considered essential for an ethical publication: data integrity; sound presentation of methodologies, sources and techniques used; reproducibility of results; acknowledgement of contributors to data collection and research; acknowledgements of funding agencies and/or previous institutions where (part of) the work was carried out.

As a consequence, authors must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the results presented in their manuscript. Authors who already published papers on the same topic are expected to include citation of these papers when relevant, but at the same time to avoid excessive and inappropriate self-citation.

Plagiarism is unacceptable; any suspicion of plagiarism will be investigated by the editorial team.

Self-plagiarism (also known as text recycling) should be avoided as much as possible; however, when text duplication from previous works is necessary, it is then reported transparently and these previous works are fully cited in the publication itself.

Whenever possible, data and results gathered in the same framework (e.g. a single research project) should not be broken up into smaller publishable units. This behaviour must be strictly avoided when the data and results share common hypotheses, methods and material. “Salami slicing” not only distorts the way a reader sees the paper (considered as a single original unit when it is only a subset of a more substantial study), it also causes cross-referencing issues. JRT encourages authors to publish their data and results obtained in a single framework as a unique and original publication. As long as a manuscript is concise, there is no page limitation in JRT; substantial taxonomic revisions, monographs and checklists are fully within the journal’s scope, and preferred to numerous smaller publication units resulting from the same framework